Civil Engineering

Civil Engineering

The study of rocks is a branch of geology. The crust of the earth is composed of rocks. The mountains, great hills and the bottoms of oceans are rocks. In other words, rock are found everywhere, but most often they are buried under the soil. Rocks are made of minerals like calcite, feldspars, quartz and micas (Fullagar et al., 2011). This paper seeks to write a geological argument basing on rocks that are a subject of question between Bill and Jane and Mike Sleezola. The case is believed to be of a fraud, as Bill and Jane believe that Mike Sleezola has given them a wrong information concerning the place of collection of the rocks he sold them. Therefore, a geological advice, recommendations and conclusions on the list of rocks in question are required in the case.

Rocks are divided into three types basing on their formation: igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks. An igneous rock is formed as a result of magma processes. Magma may either cool underneath the earth and crystallize or erupt onto the earth’s surface cool and crystallized. The magma that erupts onto the earth’s surface is known as lava. The magma that cools slowly underneath form crystals that is large and noticeable. Whereas lava cools quickly on the earth’s surface, it forms very minute crystals that cannot be seen with the naked eye and require a magnifier to be seen. Examples of igneous rocks include basalt, rhyolite, granite and diorite (Gallant, 2001).

A sedimentary rock forms as a result of sedimentary particles that are worn off other rock materials. The particles that form the sediments are from soil like silt, clay and sand. When the sediments are buried and compacted by the pressure of the weight above them, they get converted to rocks. Alternatively, the sediments convert to rock from being cemented together by dissolving in water. Examples of sedimentary rocks include sandstone, conglomerate, shale and breccias. A metamorphic rock formatin results from great heat and pressure. The pressures originate from being either deeply buried underneath the earth’s crust or as a result of the push of the tremendous plates against each other. Alternatively, as hot magma rises by the upper crust of the earth, it bakes the rocks through which it passes causing a chemical transition on the rocks around. Examples of metamorphic rocks include marble, slate, quartzite and gneiss (Gallant, 2001).

From the case, the rocks in question are basalt, quartzite, obsidian, pillow basalt, marble and granite. Geological descriptions for each mineral rock prove whether there is a fraud transaction between the Greens and Mike. Basalt is an igneous rock. It is formed as a result of volcanic eruptions, where magma that is rich in magnesium and iron and less in silica erupts from a volcanic line as lava. The lava cools so fast that basalt granules form.  Basalt is found near the earth’s crust. Analyzing the inaccuracies found in the description by Sleezola, Basalts do not form as a result of movement of lava to the earth’s surface. Basalts are not found near oceanic boundaries; only sedimentary rocks which dissolve in water and cement to form rocks do. Therefore, the fact that this rock is found near the earth’s crust, its source is not near. Basalt rock is igneous; it forms near the earth’s surface as a result of quick cooling of lava. Mike Sleezola could not have found this basalt near San Andreas Fault, oceanic boundary, a point near water bodies. It shows that its source is near (Symes et al., 2004).

Quartzite is a metamorphic rock. The rock is formed when quartz, which is rich in sandstone, is subjected to high heat and pressure conditions. The conditions make the quartz granules fuse together. Analyzing inaccuracies from Sleezola’s description of quartzite, it is clear that it does not form as a result of plate’s collusion, only granite forms as a result of two continental mass collisions. Sandstonee is a sedimentary rock found in ocean crusts which, when exposed to high temperatures and pressure, colludes under metamorphisms to form quartzite. Therefore, first of all, the rock is not quartzite if it was formed as a result of collusion between the plates. Quartzite forms as a result of exposure of quartz or sandstone to high temperature and pressure. This rock was formed as a result of collusion between two plates, so it can be granite. Collusion of plates means that it is near the earth’s crust. Therefore, the fact that Sleezola describes it to have formed as a result of collusion, its source must be near. Metamorphic rocks are formed underneath the earth’s crust. Mike Sleezola could not have found quartzite near the two planes (Nazca and Pacific) near the ocean crusts, showing that the source is so near (Symes, 2011).

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Obsidian rock is an igneous rock. Its formation happens as a result of extreme cooling of lava. The lava cooling is so fast that it does not have time for forming crystals. Cooling of lava is due to its contact with either water or air. Obsidian can either be extrusive igneous (cools along the edges of the lava flow) or intrusive igneous (cools around the edges of a sill or dyke). Analyzing Mike’s inaccuracies in the description, it is important to note that obsidian is not formed through metamorphic reaction. Basalt does not change to obsidian and does not form by going down; lava moves up the earth’s crust. The first description indicates that the rock is not obsidian if it was formed from metamorphic process; obsidian is formed as a result of magma process. The fact that this rock occurred as a result of conversion of basalt is inaccurate, basalt is igneous rock in the same class with obsidian. Lastly, obsidian is not formed as a result of lava going down, but moving up so that when in contact with water or air, cools so fast to form obsidian. Therefore, Mike Sleezola could not have derived this rock from Beni-off zone (Scollon et al., 2013).

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